Thursday, April 21, 2016
Study Guide for Exam #2
I have combined all the quizzes we have taken since the last test. I hope this is helpful! Finish strong!
-----------------------------------Bioethics Exam #2 Study Guide----------------------------------------
5- A Better Life
1. How many residents at Chase Memorial had some form of cognitive disability?
2. What did Thomas confuse with what, when first trying to address the "despair" he encountered at Chase?
3. What was attractive to Thomas about going home from Harvard for a family medicine residency?
4. What are the Three Plagues of nursing home existence?
5. What happened with drugs and deaths at Chase?
6. What was the most important finding of Thomas's experiment?
BONUS: What did Josiah Royce mean by "loyalty"?
BONUS: What's "the only way death is not meaningless"?
BONUS: What late legal philosopher said we need autonomy in the sense of being free to author our own lives?
BONUS: In Green Houses like the Florence Center, caregivers are more like ____ than _____.
AG ch.4, "Assistance"
1. Your chances of avoiding the nursing home are directly related to what number?
2. What scared Lou? OR, What was it about suburban living with Tom and Shelley that especially disrupted his simple and satisfying routine (described on 81).
…OR – no place nearby to walk to; video store, library, or supermarket
3. What is the condition of old age in which the body loses its ability to maintain adequate blood pressure for brain function during changes in bodily position?
4. (T/F) The burdens for today's elder-caregiver have declined from what they were a century ago.
5. What were the residents of the Park Place "living center with assistance" called? (occupants, associates, patients, tenants) OR, Name something that rose or that fell, at Park Place.
…OR – Physical and cognitive functions improved and depression fell
6. Studies show that as people age they focus more on what? OR, What did Laura Carstensen's research show? OR, What new perspective did she gain from her accident and slow recuperation?
…OR – People have more positive emotions as they age (94); OR – She realized what mattered was her family.
BONUS: What is the approximate ratio of people in assisted living to people in nursing homes?
BONUS: A colleague told Wilson "we want _____ for ourselves and _____ for those we love."
1. Thanks to sanitation and other public health & clinical advances, by the mid-20th century just __% of people in industrialized countries died before age thirty. (4, 14, 20)
2. What's "embarrassing" about the progress of medicine and public health?
3. After age 85, __% of people in industrialized countries are toothless. (4, 20, 40)
OR, Around age 80, we lose up to __% of our muscle weight. (10, 25, 50)
OR, By age 85, __% of us have textbook dementia. (10, 20, 40)
OR, By age 50, __% of the average person's hairs have gone gray. (20, 40, 50)
4. The newest view is that we age due to random wear & tear, genetics, or what?
5. Is there (according to Silverstone) a single common cellular mechanism to aging?
6. What is "defrailulation"?
BONUS: What's "the prevailing fantasy," and how do geriatricians contradict it?
BONUS: What kinds of courses would Chad Boult like to establish in every med school, nursing school, school of social work, and internal-medicine training program?
1. Who called old age a "massacre"?
2. What happened to Bella that severed her connection to Felix?
OR, What move restored a sense of control to Felix and Bella?
3. What is a "continuum of care" community?
4. What happened in 1935 to introduce greater security in the lives of ordinary Americans?
5. Who was Harry Truman? (Not Harry S...)
6. What was the original rationale for nursing homes, if not to help old people face dependency and manage their lives more effectively?
BONUS: AG says the goal that matters most to older people is what?
1. (T/F) Atul Gawande says mortality, or the human experience of aging, frailty, & dying, was covered in Med School.
2. What did Gawande and his cohort "pay [their] medical tuition to learn about"?
3. Where did most deaths occur in the mid-20th century? Where now?
4. Is the ability to travel one of the Independent Activities of Daily Living?
5. How have communications technologies impacted the way the elderly are regarded?
6. What does AG say we now venerate more than maturity?
Quiz April 7
1. What "cultural obsession of the moment" do some mothers consider a viable substitute for vaccination? OR, what problematic implication of their obsession do some fail to consider?
2. Whose errant article "Deadly Immunity" was retracted, but only in its corrected version?
3. Who said "a scientist is never certain"? OR, Who advocated "negative capability"?
4. What was the bioethicist who said "it's not a matter of if, but when" referring to?
5. Immunologist Polly Matzinger's _____ Model says the immune system is more responsive to entities that do damage than with those that are merely foreign.
6. Who said "we must cultivate our garden," which for Biss implies recognizing immunity as "a garden we tend together"?
Quiz March 24
1. What does Paul Offit find laughable?
2. How much revenue did the rotavirus vaccine and Lipitor generate, respectively?
3. What did a Nashville woman sell for $50?
4. What did Jacobsen v. Massachussetts (1905) uphold?
5. What 20th century political philosopher does Biss's sister mention, in criticizing "Dr.Bob's" counsel of silence?
6. What paradoxical emotional state does Biss say is induced by citizenship in this country?
Quiz March 22
1. What disappointed Biss about the immuno-semiotics conference?
2. What game metaphor does Biss prefer, to describe our immune systems and viral pathogens?
3. What caused the fatal form of croup that has virtually disappeared in this country since the '30s?
4. What caused the spread of puerpal sepsis ("childbed fever")?
5. Who were the Polio Pioneers? OR, Where is polio now endemic?
6. What does Arthur Caplan see as the biggest problem with the "restaurant model" of health care? 99
BONUS: What did Andrew Wakefield do to get branded "irresponsible and dishonest" by the British General Medical Council?
BONUS: A popular theory of disease among "people like [Biss]" blames ____, rather than filth or germs.
BONUS: "Most problems will get better if left alone" is an argument for what, according to Biss?
BONUS: What's wrong with "Dr. Bob's world"?
Quiz March 17
Eula Biss, On Immunity: An Innoculation 3-54
1. The stories of Achilles and the dragon imply what about immunity?
2. Our vaccines are now sterile, so anti-vaccine activists' greatest fear is not of bacterial but ____ contamination.
3. Who said love is known "by its fruits"?
4. What's the most common way that infants contract hep B?
5. Who or what were microbiologist Graham Rook's "old friends"?
6. What is variolation?
"A valuable asset placed in the care of someone to whom it does not ultimately belong" is Biss's definition of what? OR, it captures her understanding of what?
What is Dracula about, besides vampires?
Contributions to the "banking of immunity" give rise to the principle of ____ immunity.
What raises the probability that undervaccinated children will contract a disease?
"There is never enough evidence to prove that an event _____ happen? (can/can't)
Quiz March 15
1. What constrains medical intervention in nature?
2. What embryonic stem-cell research compromise was supported by Bill Frist and Mitt Romney?
3. In what way does Sandel agree with Sen. Brownback about stem cell research?
4. What does not follow from the fact that the blastocyst is "human life"?
5. Under what conditions would pregnancy constitute a public health crisis?
6. Does Sandel support a ban on human reproductive cloning?
Quiz March 1
Sandel Ch.5, Mastery & Gift
1. What does Sandel think the dissolution of "giftedness" would change about the "moral landscape"? (Name one of the three features it would transform.)
2. As more is subject to choice, less is attributed to what?
3. What's "playing naked"? -"flying blind"?
4. What is the inadvertent result of insurance industry practice that creates a de facto social safety net?
5. Is "changing our nature to fit the world" necessary or desirable, according to Sandel?
6. Who called the new technologies of genetic intervention a "cosmic event"?
Eugenics old & new, ch4
1. The term "eugenics" means what? OR, who coined it in 1883?
2. Who was the pioneering feminist who advocated "more children from the fit..."?
3. What "aspect of the new Germany" did the LA Times endorse in 1935?
4. What was Singapore's "free market twist" on eugenics in the '80s?
5. What famous biologist favors eugenics and calls stupid a disease?
6. What are the Repository for Germinal Choice and California Cryobank?
BONUS: Name a political or legal theorist who defended a liberal version of eugenics? Which libertarian proposed a "genetic supermarket"?
BONUS 2: What German philosopher asserted a connection between life's contingent beginning and personal freedom?